What are anticancer drugs?
Anticancer drugs or antineoplastic drugs are used for the treatment of malignant or cancerous diseases. There are several classes of drugs based on the target tissue. Most of the anticancer drugs work by destroying tumors. Since cancer tumors depend on the genetic makeup, the effect may be a variable person to person.
Since cancer can manifest any body part or organ its symptoms vary,
Breast cancer - Formation of a lump in the breast, bloody discharge from the nipple, changes in shape and texture of the nipple and the breast, swollen lymph nodes.
Prostate cancer - Difficulty in urination, pain in bones, the formation of a lump in the prostate, difficulty in starting and maintaining a steady stream of urine, urge to urinate, and leaking.
Skin cancer melanoma - New or unusual growth in the existing mole, can occur anywhere in the body, mole color changes skin mole with an irregular border.
Colon cancer - Pain in the abdomen, blood in the stool, change in bowel habits, excessive bloating, change in stool consistency, anemia, abdominal discomfort.
Symptoms of Lung cancer are chest pain, blood in cough, frequent respiratory infections, swollen lymph nodes, or shortness of breath.
Leukemia - Pain in bones and joints, easy bruising, frequent infections, mouth ulcer, nosebleed, pallor, red spots on the skin.
Gene mutations allow rapid growth of cells failing to stop the uncontrolled growth.
- Mistakes while repairing DNA errors.
- Smoking and alcohol consumption
- Prolonged exposure to the sun.
- Unsafe sex
- Working or living in the presence of chemicals
- Epoetin alfa
- Stop consuming tobacco.
- Eat healthy fresh fruits and vegetables.
- Limit processed meat consumption.
- Maintain a healthy BMI.
- Sun protection.
- Get vaccination - Hepatitis B vaccine reduces the risk of liver cancer. Human Papillomavirus (HPV) is an STD and can cause cervical and other genital cancers.
- Safe sex
- Not sharing needles
- Regular medical care
Cancer screening tests can detect cancer at a very early stage if done on time; however, there are other tests.
Physical exam - Finding lumps in the body indicating a tumor, abnormality in skin color enlargement of the organ.
Laboratory tests - Computerized tomography (CT), bone scan, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), positron emission tomography (PET), ultrasound.
Biopsy - There are many procedures for biopsy. The method depends on the affected area. Samples are collected from various body parts and then studied under the microscope. Healthy cells look uniform with the organization than those of cancerous cells look unorganized.
What are cancer cells?
They are cells that have uncontrolled growth due to a genetic mutation.
How does cancer spread?
Single cancer breaks away from the cells and infects other cells, to form a tumor, and they can travel through the bloodstream and grow in other parts of the body.
Is cancer the most common cause of death across the world?
Since deaths due to other causes like heart diseases plagues infections and other conditions have decreased due to medications, cancer is the most common cause of death.
Why are older people more prone to cancer in general?
Cancer is caused by genetic changes in the long run, and since, older people may have maximum changes during their lifetime, they are more prone to cancer.
Can a single factor cause cancer?
Usually, cancer is a combination of several cofactors.
How many different types of cancers are there?
There are almost 200 different types of cancers, as they are dependent on each type of organ.