Hepatitis is a liver problem, and it is an inflammatory condition. The condition can lead to fibrosis, cirrhosis, or liver cancer. It is self-limiting as well. One can suffer from hepatitis because of a viral infection, but other infections, harmful substances, for example, alcohol and different drugs, and autoimmune diseases can also cause hepatitis. There are five types of viral hepatitis referred to as types A, B, C, D, and E.
The most common symptoms for all types of hepatitis include:
- Abdominal pain
- Extreme fatigue
- Dark urine
- Itchy eyes
- Pale stool
If one has type B, then the hepatitis b symptoms include achy joints and loss of appetite.
Hepatitis A virus or HAV caused hepatitis A. It transmits through the consumption of contaminated food and water.
Hepatitis B virus or HBV causes hepatitis B. It spreads through contact with infected body fluids like the blood and semen.
Hepatitis C virus of HCV causes Hepatitis C and usually spreads through injected narcotics. It happens because of a lack of infection control in healthcare settings.
Hepatitis D virus or HDV causes hepatitis D virus. It happens to those if they are HBV infected. The dual infection results in severe diseases and worse outcomes.
Hepatitis E virus causes hepatitis E. It transmits by consumption of contaminated food and water.
Noninfectious hepatitis happens due to excessive consumption of alcohol and refers to as alcoholic hepatitis. Sometimes, the immune system of human body mistakes the liver as a harmful object and attacks it; this is called autoimmune hepatitis.
Here are the hepatitis medicines that a patient usually buys:
- Hepcvir LS
- MyHep LVIR
Hepatitis is dangerous and difficult to treat, so it is advised to take precautions.
Hepatitis A – Immunization is the best way to prevent hepatitis A. Children between the ages of 12 and 18 months may start taking vaccines for hepatitis. It is a series of 2 vaccines. An adult needs a booster dose 6 to 12 months following the initial treatment, along with hepatitis B vaccine.
Hepatitis B – Minimize the risk of transmission by practicing safe sex using condoms, do not share toothbrushes and razors, and use sterilized needles. It is recommended to take HBV vaccine to stay away from Hepatitis B.
Hepatitis C – It transmits through the transfer of infected bodily fluids. So it is advised not to share needles and toothbrushes. Do not inject illegal drugs and consume alcohol in moderation.
Hepatitis D – The only way to prevent hepatitis D is to avid infection with hepatitis B. Get vaccination, practice safe sex, don't use recreational injectable drugs, and be cautious about tattoos and piercings.
Hepatitis E –There is no vaccination available for hepatitis E. The best way to prevent hepatitis E is by eating healthy. Drink boiled water, and don't eat raw or unwashed fruits.
The doctor usually recommends the following tests:
Laboratory evaluation includes-
- Alanine aminotransferase (ALT)
- Aspartate aminotransferase (AST).
- Alkaline phosphatase
- Prothrombin time
- Total protein, albumin
- Complete blood count and coagulation studies
Hepatitis A, B, C, D, and E diagnosis depends on the demonstration of specific antigen and antibody (detected by an ELISA) in sera.
Liver biopsy tests conducted to measure the extent of liver damage.
Does the hepatitis B virus spread through breastfeeding?
No, HBV transmission does not occur through breast milk; this makes breastfeeding a child with hepatitis B safe.
What is the hepatitis B treatment method?
The treatment method includes getting a vaccination and using antiviral hepatitis B medications such as Entecavir, Tenofovir, Lamivudine, and Adefovir. The doctor might suggest liver transplant as well for the severely damaged liver.